How to Cite Your Print Sources in APA Format
This guide is based on the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA). 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2010. The complete manual can be found at the reference desk under the call number REF DESK BF 76.7 .A46 6th ed. 2010.
Documenting your research according to APA style means using In-text citation (or parenthetical citation) and making a Reference list. Provide an in-text citation whenever you quote an author directly or paraphrase an authors ideas. (See below for more about quotations.)
Type In-text citations in the body of your text and include the following: author last name(s) followed by a publication year in parentheses. TWO ACCEPTABLE FORMS: If you mention the author(s) in your narrative, put parentheses around the date only. Example: Zimbardo (1991) outlines his philosophy of… If you do not mention the author(s), put parentheses around both author and date. Example: One philosophy of personality (Zimbardo, 1991) states that…
If you cite a source more than once, check the following table to see if a subsequent (or repeated) citation can be briefer. Remember: authors may be mentioned either in your text or in the parenthetical citation.
|Number of authors||First citation||Subsequent citation(s)|
|1 author||(Zimbardo, 1991)||same|
|2 authors||Mieder and Sobieske (1999)||same|
|3-5 authors||Smith, Johnson, Williams, Young, and Black (1982)||Smith et al. (1982)|
|6 or more authors||First author's last name et al. (1996)||same|
|Group or corporate author||(National Alliance for the Mentally Ill [NAMI], 2000)||(NAMI, 2000)|
If no author is given, cite the source by the first 2-3 words of the title followed by the publication year in parentheses. Use double quotation marks for article and chapter titles; italicize titles of books, periodicals, and microfilm publications. EXAMPLES: (“Funding Highlights,” 1998) The story of meat (1930).
Quotations under 40 words: Use double quotation marks, and include the page number(s) after the quoted text, either with the full citation or apart. EXAMPLE: “Libraries are amazing and enthralling places” (Parrott, 1999, p. 19). EXAMPLE: Parrott (1999) describes reference librarians as “trained explorers” ready to “guide you through a jungle of information” (p. 20).
Quotations over 40 words: Do not use double quotation marks. Instead, start a new line, indent five spaces, and maintain the indentation as you double-space the quoted text. Use quotation marks, as needed, for quoted text within the longer block quotation. Cite your source either before or at the end of the block. Type the page numbers only at the end , as shown here. EXAMPLE: (Gramm, 2002, p. 92); OR: (pp. 517-518). Space-bar twice after this.
- List your sources on a separate page (or pages) with the header References centered at the top.
- List references in alphabetical order by author last name, then by the earliest date for multiple works by the same author, or by title if there is no author.
- Use hanging indent for each reference.
- Double-space within and between references, but note: To save space on this guide, examples following will be single-spaced.
- Italicize book and periodical titles.
- Capitalize only the first word of book titles, subtitles, and words normally capitalized, e.g. American.
- Capitalize every significant word of periodical titles.
Reference List Examples
Reminder: For the purposes of this guide, examples listed below will be single-spaced. Your instructor may prefer double-spacing.
BOOK - ONE AUTHOR Parrott, L. (1999). How to write psychology papers. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Longman. BOOK - MULTIPLE AUTHORS Cone, J. D., & Foster, S. L. (1993). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. BOOK - CORPORATE OR GROUP AUTHOR American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSMIV (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. - Subsequent citation: DSM-IV (1994) fourth edition. EDITED BOOK Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. BOOK CHAPTER Peters, M. (1995). Handedness and its relation to other indices of cerebral lateralization. In R. J. Davidson & K. Hugdahl (Eds.), Brain asymmetry (pp. 183-214). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. BOOK/JOURNAL ARTICLE - NO AUTHOR Follow this format: Book title. OR Journal article title. (Date). Remaining publication information required for authored books and articles. MULTI-VOLUME SET Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology: A study of science. (Vols. 1-6). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. - First citation: (Koch, 1959-1963). JOURNAL ARTICLE - ONE AUTHOR Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, 574-576. JOURNAL ARTICLE - MULTIPLE AUTHORS, PAGINATED BY ISSUE Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45 (2), 10-36. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. ENCYCLOPEDIA ESSAY, SIGNED Edelmann, R. J. (1994). Embarrassment and blushing. In Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 237-245). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. - Unsigned essay: Begin with title, then year, etc.
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Comments to: Jake Barickman, firstname.lastname@example.org